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Slide switches are mechanical switches defined by their method of activation. The switch is a slider that moves (slides) from position to position. Slide switches are known for providing selection of two or more switch positions for engagement of respective switch contacts. Electrical slide switches have long been used to control the operation of many devices, including volume and other controls for audio & video equipment, dimmer controls for lights among a multitude of other daily electrical products. Such slide switches have also been used for controlling the operating speed of many kinds of variable speed hand tools. In electrical slide switches a slide member is slidably repositionable to affect a switching action. Slide switch operation can occur in conjunction with pushbutton operation to provide momentary pushbutton switch actuation in each of the slide switch positions. Slide actuated switches come in a variety of forms. A commonly used slide switch has a strip of conductor material mounted on a slider and fixed contacts connected to terminals of the switch mounted in a body. Movement of the slider relative to the body moves the strip of conductor material into and out of contact with the fixed contacts to provide a switching action. Another type of slide actuated switch relies upon the slider movement causing a pivoting movement of a conductor member from one to the other of two extreme positions.


The hookswitch was identified as on and off switch for most operations of a telephone. The hookswitch consisted of seven metallic leaves, a notched fiber board, spring and an insulated base which was, as one unit semi-permanently mounted with rivets to the base of the telephone instrument. Eavesdroppers could easily modify the hookswitch so that it could pass audio from the handset down the telephone line even though the handset was setting on the instrument’s cradle. Electronic hook switches are more commonly used in high volume telephone and DAA products because they offer lower cost than relays, consume less power, and are smaller. However, electronic hook switches are constructed from high voltage transistors and have difficulties being driven from integrated circuits fabricated in low voltage processes. One difficulty is that the control current available on a DAA integrated circuit (IC) is very low. Another difficulty is that often at least one transistor is required to high voltage level shift control outside of the operating voltage range of the controlling circuit. Collectively, level shifting and cascading of transistors to get sufficient current gain typically require the use of at least 3 high voltage, bipolar transistors.


Electrical switches are devices utilized to manually control electric current flow. Manually operated switches include an actuator used to cause making/breaking action of switch contacts to energize or de-energize one or more electrical circuits associated with the contacts. In addition to switching electrical signals responsive to physical actuation of the switch, electrical switches may include actuation indication including tactile feedback or audible feedback. Switches are available that are equipped with lamps used for helping people find the switches in the dark. There are several different types of light switches. Common switch types include rocker, toggle, push button, rotary, keylock, slide, snap action and reed switches. Switches are highly varied based on their intended utility. In electromechanical systems, switches provide the function of making and breaking electrical contacts and consequently electrical circuits. Switches responsive to fluid levels have utilized a variety of approaches for opening and closing an electrical circuit. Switches have found particular use in industrial control systems, where it is often desirable to monitor conditions so that appropriate actions may be taken in response to the monitored conditions.


A push button switch is used to either close or open an electrical circuit depending on the application. Push button switches are used in various applications such as industrial equipment control handles, outdoor controls, mobile communication terminals, and medical equipment, and etc. Push button switches generally include a push button disposed within a housing. The push button may be depressed to cause movement of the push button relative to the housing for directly or indirectly changing the state of an electrical contact to open or close the contact. Also included in a pushbutton switch may be an actuator, driver, or plunger of some type that is situated within a switch housing having at least two contacts in communication with an electrical circuit within which the switch is incorporated. Typical actuators used for contact switches include spring loaded force cap actuators that reciprocate within a sleeve disposed within the canister. The actuator is typically coupled to the movement of the cap assembly, such that the actuator translates in a direction that is parallel with the cap. A push button switch for a data input unit for a mobile communication device such as a cellular phone, a key board for a personal computer or the like is generally constructed by mounting a cover member directly on a circuit board. Printed circuit board (PCB) mounted pushbutton switches are an inexpensive means of providing an operator interface on industrial control products. In such push button switches, a substrate which includes a plurality of movable sections is formed of a rubber elastomer. The key top is formed on a top surface thereof with a figure, a character or the like by printing, to thereby provide a cover member. Push button switches incorporating lighted displays have been used in a variety of applications. Such switches are typically comprised of a pushbutton, an opaque legend plate, and a back light to illuminate the legend plate.


A toggle switch is a switching device comprising a plurality of terminals and means operated by a projecting leve for making and breaking electrical connections between pairs of those terminals. Toggle switches of various types have long been used to control power in domestic, commercial, industrial, and military applications for operating various electrical devices and equipment. Toggle switches typically are manufactured with a dielectric housing that contains electrical contacts and is fitted with a manually operable handle to switch power to externally mounted terminals. Toggle switches typically provide a manually accessible member which has metastability in a first position and a second position. A toggle switch includes a toggle lever that is mounted to a cover or housing so as to pivot about an axis or the like. A spring is placed in contact with the toggle lever to exert a biasing force to maintain the toggle lever in one or more stable positions, in addition to maintaining or assisting in the maintenance of a force on electrical contacts that are being switched into contact.


A rocker switch is a device having a plurality of terminals and means operated by a rocker for making and breaking electrical connections between pairs of those terminals. A rocker switch includes a button that is mounted to a case to pivot about an axis. A spring is typically placed in contact with the button to exert a biasing force that will maintain the button in one or more of the stable positions. The plunger operates a rocker actuator by a force exerted from the spring. The spring also supplies the force that causes the switch to toggle from one stable position to another. In general, the rocker switch is constructed such that its switch components or parts are housed in a square or rectangular housing the top of which is open and an operation button is mounted at the opening space of the box at the top thereof such that it can be moved for seesaw movement. The rocker switches are used in various kinds of OA machines, amusement and game machines, measurement instruments, and medical instruments.


Liquid level sensing devices are often used to indicate the level of liquid in a vessel or other container and/or to operate flow control devices that control the liquid level. The level detection is based on different principles. There are known mechanical, electromechanical and hydrostatic level switches, ultrasonic level switches, capacitive and conductive level switches, microwave level switches, optical and radiometric level switches. Mechanical and electromechanical level switches are suitable for liquids only. Mechanical and electromechanical level switches usually incorporate a float buoy for sensing the fluid level, the float buoy being operatively connected to a switch device. The electrical switch is actuated upon physical movement of the portion of the float switch device containing the electrical switch or upon physical movement of another portion of the float switch device. A capacitance point level switch is operable to sense a specific level of the material in the vessel and provide a discrete output, such as with a relay contact, when the material is at a sufficient level to cause the capacitance between the probe and the reference to exceed a reference value. The capacity of the measuring capacitor within a sensor varies according to the surface level displacement of the material contained in a tank.


Electrical snap action switches operate on the arched elastic sheetmetal member principle, and provide snap actions in response to changes in pressure exerted upon the arch. A conventional snap action switch conducts upon mechanical contact between a metal snap action plate and metal pins (or conductors on a printed circuit board). In such a snap action switch, switch closure is recognized by detecting an electrical short between pins. Pneumatic snap action switches have a diaphragm and two or more electrical contacts arranged inside the switch body and sealed by the diaphragm so that upon a particular pressure being applied the internal contacts close and the switch performs its desired function. A subminiature snap action switch is characterized by an actuator lever which causes a coil spring in a pivot bracket assembly to open or close a pair of electrical contacts. Single pole snap action dome or oil can switches have been used to provide reliable electrical switch contacts in relatively low-current apparatus, for example electronic calculators or computers. Such switches have typically utilized a dome-shaped switch element to make and break electrical contact with an associated underlying conducting contact.


Many types of machinery are operated by switches adapted to be actuated by the foot of the machine operator. Foot operated switches for controlling the application of electrical power to external electrical circuits are widely employed in industry. For example, foot switches are often used to trigger the delivery of laser energy in a medical laser system. Foot actuated pneumatic switches are often used in the food equipment industry to obtain precise hands-free operation of the desired food equipment, such as a meat mixer-grinder. The conventional type of foot switch generally comprises a pressure-contact switch disposed in a vertical position and directly controlled by a pressure cap to connect or disconnect electricity. Foot operated switches generally use mechanical or pneumatically actuated switches. Mechanically actuated foot switches are typically either of the plunger or push button type, or the tumbler type. Pneumatically actuated foot switches usually comprise a deformable pneumatic bulb, or air cushion, which is deformed by the foot of the user to operate a remotely located switch mechanism. When depressed, the actuator creates a burst of pressurized air which passes through a hose, tubing or other path to flip a pressure operated switch thereby initiating operation of a piece of equipment. A typical foot switch comprises a base carrying a switch having at least one electrical contact which is capable of moving between an open position and a closed position upon depression of a pedal member pivotably mounted on the base. The switch contacts receive conductors which pass externally of the base for connection to an external circuit.


Electronic switch can be visualized as a group of one or more mechanical electrical switches in which,instead of mechanically opening or closing the contacts, the physical opening and closing is achieved by applying appropriate electrical control signals to separate terminals on the switch in much the same way that a relay performs.A toggle switch is a class of electrical switches that are actuated by a mechanical lever, handle,or rocking mechanism.It is a switch that uses a toggle joint with a spring to open or close an electric circuit as an attached lever is pushed through a small arc.Toggle switches are available in many different styles and sizes,and are used in countless applications.Many are designed to provide,e.g.,the simultaneous actuation of multiple sets of electrical contacts,or the control of large amounts of electric current or mains voltages.


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